Posted by: janecronin | October 23, 2016

Non-sexist Spanish

The concept of challenging sexism in language is well established in English.  The historical linguistic assumption in words like “fireman” “policeman” and “chairman” is that these jobs are exclusively performed by men so when a woman fulfilled one of these roles, she was either obliged to maintain the male-biased title or the job name was altered to “firewoman”, “policewoman” and “chairwoman”.   The feminist argument was that there was no need to specify the gender of the person fulfilling an occupation, so the words “fire fighter”, “police officer” and “chairperson” are now in common use, along with many other similar changes.

Another area where gender assumptions are challenged is in the use of the personal pronoun “he” when the gender is unknown.   Here is a typical example:  “If your child is upset at school, he may need to be encouraged …”   Some writers have chosen to replace “he” with “she” to redress the balance: “If your child is upset at school, she may need to be encouraged ….”  However, nowadays the singular use of “they” has become increasingly accepted: “If you child is upset at school, they may need to be encouraged …”

Challenges to male linguistic domination are very significant in the Spanish language as well.  In many cases the reasons are even more justified since women were excluded from so many areas of social and professional life during Franco’s dictatorship.  However, the Spanish solution has been to create equivalent female job titles, rather than to eliminate gender references.  This is the case with “abogada”, “fontanera”, “directora” etc. where the linguistic form easily lends itself to  gender change.  More awkward are solutions like “concejal” “concejala” (local councillor); “jefe” “jefa” (boss); “juez” “jueza” (judge) and so on.  Some people reject these forms on linguistic grounds whilst the feminine movement in general strongly defends them.

As students of Spanish you will have learnt that the masculine form is the “default” form when there is a gender mix.  For example “we” is “nosotros” when male or mixed company is referred to and “nosotras” is only used when those included in “we” are all female.  However, this too is being challenged strongly.  Nowadays most public speeches are addressed to: “compañeras y compañeros”; “amigas y amigos”; “madres y padres”; “vosotras y vosotros” and so on, with the feminine form often preceding the masculine.  In written or typed form a rather neat formula has been found which consists of using the @ (arroba) symbol to represent the “o” and “a” like this:  Estimad@s amig@s.

If you have children at school you will be aware of the AMPA (Parents’ Association).  This stands for Asociación de Madres, Padres y Apoderados (Association of Mothers, Fathers and Guardians).  However, when my children started school these were called “APA” – Asociación de Padres y Apoderados (Association of Parents and Guardians).  This was changed to specifically include mothers, which was more than justified, especially since they were the only ones who ever actually got involved!

Posted by: janecronin | October 16, 2016

Bringing up bilingual children

Despite the fact that bilingualism and multilingualism are the norm in many parts of the world, people in modern monolingual cultures often have misunderstandings about the benefits or otherwise of bringing up a child to speak more than one language.   Some people fear that if a child is taught a second language from an early age it will cause confusion and hold them back.  Nothing could be further from the truth and in fact there are many studies that indicate that bilingualism gives children a great advantage in their intellectual development.   With that said, there are some principles that need to be observed for bilingualism to be successful.

An interesting observation I have made is that, as quickly as a small child can pick up a new language, they can lose the language equally as quickly if it isn´t maintained.  You may have come across some little person who chatters away in four or five languages without any difficulty at all.  This is because at such an early age, a child has no conscious realisation that she is speaking different languages; she simply notices that she must use certain words with certain people to communicate.  If Daddy calls something a “door” and Mummy calls it a “puerta” whilst the friend down the road call it a “tür” and other children at the nursery call it “porta” a small child is happy to use these different versions in each context.  However, if one of these language sources, a parent, the friend or the nursery, were to disappear, that area of language would also be wiped out extremely quickly.

So, what principles should parents adopt to ensure a solid, long-lasting bilingualism in their children?  Firstly, I think it is very important to speak to a child naturally in your own mother tongue and never adopt another language artificially when talking to your child.  Secondly, don´t be demanding about what language the child answers you in.  If you ask your child what she has learnt at school and she answers you in the language used at school, never demand that she answer you in a different language.   You can echo the same information back in your own language so that she hears an alternative, but never give her the impression that she has said something incorrectly.  A small child will not understand that you are encouraging her to use a different language; she will just perceive there is something wrong in what she has told you.

Finally, on this complex but interesting subject, the most important thing is not to get over-anxious about bilingualism.  Family situations, linguistic contexts and children´s personalities vary, and it is far more important that a child grows up being listened to, whatever they say and however they say it.

Posted by: janecronin | October 9, 2016

The Status of Languages

The language with the highest status worldwide is English.  There is no objective evidence for this, but it is clearly the language with most influence.  Just in terms of statistics, it is spoken as a first language by about 375 million people; it is the official language of 75 countries; there are more second language than first language English speakers in the world and around 750 million people speak it as a foreign language.   In addition, 80% of the world’s electronically stored information is in English.

Bringing such overwhelming statistics to a personal level, I brought my children up as bilingual English-Spanish speakers in Spain.  This has not only given them a huge advantage professionally and academically, it has also given them a social and psychological advantage.  Since early infancy they have been envied and congratulated by their Spanish friends, neighbours and teachers for their ability to speak English.  This has meant that they have grown up with positive emotional connections with their mother’s native language and have certainly never been embarrassed by it.

Now compare this with the psychological impression a child would have living in Europe if their other language belonged to an ethnic minority.  No one would be congratulating them for speaking the language and it is quite possible that it would be looked down on, either consciously or unconsciously by their friends and acquaintances.  This could ultimately lead to their own rejection of the language, along with its culture and associations, and their lack of interest in passing it on to their own children in later life.

Therefore, we can clearly see that different languages enjoy different levels of social acceptability, with English at the top of the league table.  When it comes to Spanish, there is a lot of effort being put into raising its status in the world.  Every year there is Spanish language congress attended by academics and institutional figures from Spanish speaking countries in which they work out strategies to improve the standing of Spanish in the world.  Their objectives include agreeing points of common ground in the language itself, asserting the recognition and use of Spanish in the Internet, promoting Spanish language interests around the world and so on.  They have particular issues in the United States where “latinos” have had a second class status for so long and another of their challenges is the invasion of English words and terminology which has become increasingly pervasive in advertising and marketing, as it has been for many years in other fields such as technology and medicine.

In a global world and a free-market economy it very difficult, and possibly even counter-productive, to protect a language by legislation, but those who are working to promote the status of the Spanish language in the world are helping themselves and future generations of Spanish speakers both  professionally and culturally.

Posted by: janecronin | October 2, 2016

Spelling mistakes

Spelling mistakes are the bane or our lives, or would that be that bain, bayne or beign?  I’d better check in the dictionary – are yes, I was write, it is bane, oops know, I was right.  Well, you no what I mean.

We are painfully aware of the problems of English spelling, as well as the feelings of superiority and inferiority that can result from being good or bad at it.  The Spanish are certainly not immune from what they call “faltas de ortografía” but they are really in a different league.  Spanish has a few hidden spelling traps, but as I’ve been at great pains to explain over the last few weeks, 99% of Spanish spelling is obvious because of the phonetic nature of the written language.

There are three typical Spanish spelling mistakes which arise when there are two alternative spellings for the same sound.  Firstly, there is the old chestnut of “b” and “v”.  We struggle to hear the difference, and that is because in everyday modern spoken Spanish, there isn´t any.  Thus the Spanish themselves can get muddled and write words like “nobiembre” instead of “noviembre” or “Benir” instead of “venir”.  These are simple examples which people with a primary education would get right, but with more obscure words such mistakes are more likely.  Sometimes there can be two words which mean different things depending on their spelling.  For example “vaca” means “cow” whereas “baca” means “rack” such as the roof rack on a car.

Another typical spelling mistake in Spanish is knowing whether to add an “h” or not, since the letter “h” is not pronounced.  It’s quite common to see these mistakes in texts and tweets, when people are writing quickly and get mixed up between “a” and “ha”.  This might not look too terrible to you, but they are completely different parts of speech so, “ha visto a mi amigo” means “he/she has seen my friend” whilst “a visto ha mi amigo” means “to seen has my friend”, in other words in its written form it is meaningless, even though the two sentences are pronounced the same.

The third mistake of a similar ilk is the confusion between “y” and “ll” which are also pronounced the same as each other in modern European Spanish.  I have (albeit rarely) see “yo” spelt “llo”.  A common confusion is between the two verbs “rayar” (to scratch) and “rallar” (to grate – as in “queso rallado” – grated cheese).  Both verbs are pronounced the same but mean different things.  However, before you throw your hands up in horror at the difficulty of the Spanish language, just remember that English has – there, their, and they´re; bare and bear; stare and stair and a myriad more of the same kind of challenges, with very few guidelines to help us out.

Posted by: janecronin | September 25, 2016

Choosing a language course

I’m often asked to recommend Spanish language courses, other than my own, and I usually give the rather diplomatic answer of “it depends”.  In fact the choice of the right language course does depend on a number of important factors, such as the time you have available, how well you manage the internet and what devices and connection you have at your disposal, how much money you are willing to spend, what are your aims in learning the language, what kind of learning background you have already and what is your learning style.  Although you may have never given much thought to any of these points, they are the unknowns that go through my head when someone asks me this question.

Let’s look at the last three points a little more closely.  What are your aims in learning Spanish?  Some people have a reasonable grasp of grammar but want to learn how to apply their knowledge in practical situations.  Other people can “get by” in real situations, but want to deepen their understanding of the language and speak with more accuracy.  Also, the way you intend to apply the language varies:  do you need it just to get by in everyday situations, to join in social activities with Spanish people or do you need it for your current job or to be able to expand your work prospects?

Regarding our learning background, this also makes a big difference to the kinds of language courses that are suitable for us.  There is no point in wading into a course that uses lots of grammatical terms, if we have no idea what they mean.  This can sometimes be a problem when people go to native Spanish teachers.  Younger Spanish people are taught grammar at school so they are inclined to assume that you as a language learner understand grammatical terms.  You might end up feeling like the dunce in the class, when the real problem is that you were never taught about grammar at school.

Finally, we all have different styles of learning.  In our generation at school this was never recognised and everyone had to learn everything in the same way.  Nowadays, educators are more aware of different learning needs and where language learning is concerned, some people learn better by hearing, others by reading, and others by seeing visual images or being put in practical situations.  Different people cope with tasks in different ways and everyone learns at a different speed.

Finally, be aware that a lot of the courses on the market are teaching South American rather than European Spanish, as of course America is a much bigger language market than Europe.  I’ve given you a lot of different things to think about, but at least give some of these issues a thought, rather than just reaching for the most popular or recommended course which may not necessary work for you.

Posted by: janecronin | September 18, 2016

Are we normal?

First I should define my terms.  By “we” I mean British people who only speak one language, although I do realize that people outside this group may also be reading this.  And the question is, is it “normal” to speak only one language?  Apparently, well over half of the world’s population speak two, three or more languages fluently, although statistics are hard to come by as there are too many variables to get an accurate picture.  For example, how competent do you have to be to count as a language speaker?; what is the difference between a “native” and a “second-language speaker”?; do some dialects count as proper languages?; and so on.  However, even allowing for all these variables, it seems that those of us who spend our lives within the conceptual and communicative boundaries of a single language, are the exception rather than the rule.

Interestingly, there are a lot of theories and discussions about the advantages and disadvantages of bilingualism, in which the implication is that this is something unusual.  The fact is that most monolinguals live in countries which have dominant cultures, or speak a dominant language such as English, and it is in these monolingual cultures that bilingualism tends to be regarded as something of a rarity.

We only need to think a little about the history and geography of the world to realize why bilingualism and multilingualism is actually the norm in human society.  Many less developed countries have at some time in their history been colonies of European powers and therefore still have a European language (English, French, Spanish or Portuguese) as their official language, whilst also having a number of indigenous and tribal languages which are more likely to be spoken at home.

Then almost all European countries have some minority groups and languages, such as Basques and Catalans in Spain, Bretons in France, Welsh in the UK and so on.  In addition, the phenomenon of human migration which has gone on for thousands of years is still continuing today, so that millions of people live in countries whose official language is different from their own.  The children of these families frequently grow up as bilingual, thus preserving their native culture as well as their language.

All of this indicates that it is entirely normal for people to speak more than one language either from birth, or to a proficient standard acquired during their life-time.  This is a fact definitely worth bearing in mind as we go through life assuming that we are the normal ones whilst those amazing beings who switch comfortably between several languages are in some way exceptional.   I speak as a native monolingual who has worked hard for many years to acquire proficiency in just one other language.  The effort is definitely worth it, but I think at least part of the battle is won when we stop assuming that our way of thinking is the only “normal” one.

Posted by: janecronin | September 11, 2016

Is that an umlaut I see before me?

Those of you who read this article regularly will have noticed that over the last few weeks I have veered away from making general reflections about learning, to having a detailed look at pronunciation.  Fortunately Spanish is a phonetically written language and as such is completely logical, so at some point these explanations come to an end, and in fact this is the final article on the subject.

We are going to look at one specific aspect of pronunciation and spelling hitherto unmentioned, and that is the rules surrounding the letter “g”.  When you first learnt to pronounce the individual letters in Spanish, hopefully you were taught that the letter “g” has two possible pronunciations – the dry “g” sound similar to English in the word “go” (for example in “gracias”) and the throaty “hhh” sound when the “g” comes in front of the letters “e” or “i”, as in the place names Cartagena and Girona.  This throaty sounds doesn´t exist in English but is like the “ch” sound in the Scottish word “loch”   These two sounds are quite distinct from each other, even though they can vary in strength slightly with different accents and in different positions in the word.  For example, when the “g” is followed by a “u” it practically disappears altogether, so that “guapo” (handsome) in reality sounds more like “wapo”.

As Spanish spelling faithfully reflects sound, this means that a spelling solution has to be found when we want to write the sound “ge” (as in “get”) or “gi” (as in “give”).  In these cases, the spelling has to represent the hard “g” sound in a position where it would normally be pronounced as the throaty “hhhh”.  To do this, we add a silent letter “u” after the “g”.   An example of this is the name Miguel (which is not pronounced Migwel)  guerra (war), guitarra (guitar), guisantes (peas).  In all of these words the “u” is silent and is only there to make the “g” hard when it would otherwise be soft.

Finally, we need to look at those two little dots which some people refer to by the German word “umlaut” but in fact are called a “dieresis”.  (You will never need to know that, but there it is).   These are placed over the “u” when it appears between a “g – e” or a “g – i” but, however, should be pronounced and not silent. (In other words, güe and  güi sound as in the Welsh names Gwen and Gwyn). My favourite example of this is the word “vergüenza” meaning “shame”.  “¡Qué vergüenza!” can mean “How embarrassing!” or “How shameful!” depending on the context.  Therefore “un sinvergüenza” is  a “shameless person” and unfortunately there are plenty of those around.

Posted by: janecronin | September 4, 2016

Dual Sounds

As you will have noticed, very often two vowels come next to each other in Spanish words.  Unlike English which is much more variable, in Spanish these dual sounds are simply a combination or merging together of the two individual vowel sounds.  In most cases these combinations are referred to as “diphthongs” but there are one or two pronunciation rules we need to look at to understand the subject properly.

For the purposes of this explanation we can divide the five Spanish vowels into two types: A, E and O are described as “strong” vowels.  I also like to think of them as “open” vowels as you need your mouth wide open to pronounce them properly.  On the other hand I and U are “weak” or “closed” vowels and in saying them our mouths are narrower and more closed.

The first thing we need to know about diphthongs is that any combination of one strong and one weak vowel produces a diphthong.  These combinations therefore are: ai, ia, ei, ie, oi, io, au, ua, eu, ue, ou, uo.  In addition we count iu and ui as diphthongs.  The second thing to understand is that these combined sounds constitute a single beat or syllable.  This is important to understand, particularly when we are applying the rules I mentioned in the last article about where the emphasis should go in a word.

To give some examples of what I am talking about, here are some words containing diphthongs which also show in bold and capital letters where the emphasis should go on the word.  paiSAje; farMAcia; aCEIte; SEIte; OIga; paLAcio; autoBÚS;   LENgua; EUro; PUEdo; CUOta; RUIdo; ciuDAD.  In each case the diphthongs merge into a single dual sound creating a single syllable and the word emphasis follows the rules I have written about before.

In contrast to these examples, when we find two “strong” vowels together they stand on their own as single syllables.  Hence:  paSEo; oAsis, maREa and so on.  One more thing to say is that a diphthong can be split into two syllables by use of an accent – hence panaderÍa; paÍs; grÚa; aÚn.

I realize that putting all of this together into one short article may seem rather too technical, but if you manage to get to grips with it all, your problems about how words should be pronounced will be over for ever.

Posted by: janecronin | August 28, 2016

Rules of Emphasis

There are three golden rules about where the emphasis should be placed in Spanish words.  I mentioned a couple of weeks ago about how Spanish reading is taught in syllables and that therefore Spanish words should be read as a combination of these syllables.  The definition of a syllable is the beat in a word.  For example “un” has one syllable; “mesa” has two syllables; “botella” has three syllables, and so on.  Also, last week we talked about the importance of knowing on which part of a word the emphasis should go, in order for it to make sense when spoken.

The rules of emphasis in Spanish are as follows.  Firstly, if a word ends in a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or the letters s or n, the emphasis falls on the last but one (penultimate) syllable.  Therefore the two examples above are pronounced MEsa and boTElla.  If these words are made into plurals by adding the letter ‘s’ (MEsas and boTEllas) the emphasis remains exactly the same.   Examples involving the letter ‘n’ are all third person plural verbs such as MIran (they look) and TIEnen (they have) which also place the beat on the syllable before the ending.

Secondly, in words that end in any consonant other than s or n, the beat of the word goes on the final syllable.  There are actually fewer letter endings in Spanish than there are in English, which is why Spanish Scrabble is not nearly as much fun as the English version.  The final consonants in Spanish words, apart from s and n are: d, j, r, l, y and z.  Any other ending letters you see are either imported words or from another language such as Valenciano.  Here are some examples of this rule: paRED, reLOJ, reguLAR, fenomeNAL, esTOY, feLIZ.

Finally, any word which diverts from these two rules, has an accent marking where the word should be emphasized.  Here are some examples;  árbol, difícil, inglés, lápiz, sábado, sofá, lámpara.  This also applies to place names such as Almoradí, Los Alcázares, Cádiz, León, Córdoba.   I haven´t marked the emphasized parts of these words myself, as the accents have done the job for me.

It is important to practice saying all these words out loud and getting used to their rhythm.  Some people hear this immediately, whilst others take longer to tune their ear in.  Although we do exactly the same thing in English, but without the help of consistent rules, it is an unconscious process in our native language.  However, if you apply these three basic rules when you speak Spanish they will get you a very long way to actually being understood!  There are just a couple more bits and pieces to complete the pronunciation jigsaw which I will cover next week.

Posted by: janecronin | August 21, 2016

The Music of Language

There are a lot of things in common between music and language.  For music to make any sense it has to obey rules of rhythm and expression and exactly the same is true of language.  Words and sentences have patterns and shapes which make them meaningful.  If we distort the rhythm of a word it becomes completely incomprehensible, and it is very difficult to follow the speech of someone who alters the natural cadence of a sentence.  Likewise, if music loses its rhythm it turns into a cacophony and is unpleasant to listen to.

As we learn the music of our native language unconsciously we are usually unaware that any particular pattern is being followed.  If we alter the rhythm of a sentence in English, we can significantly change its meaning.  For example: “You have painted the door red” changes completely in meaning depending on which word we emphasise.  “YOU have painted the door red” (I thought it was someone else).  “You HAVE painted the door red” (I thought you hadn´t).  “You have PAINTED the door red” (I thought you’d sprayed it) “You have painted the DOOR red” (I thought you’d painted the table) “You have painted the door RED” (I thought you’d painted it blue).  You can have endless hours of fun experimenting with changes of rhythm and emphasis in sentences.

Another interesting thing about English you may never have thought about is that the same word can mean two completely different things depending on which part you emphasise.  Just think of “refuse” “contract” “record” and imagine the chaos if you put the accent on the wrong part of the word.  “I REfuse to sign that conTRACT”. “He took the reFUSE to the bin.”  “She beat the word reCORD.”  “I want to REcord that song” and so on. There are many other words like this, for example “content”, “object”, “present”.   I think at this point we should spare a thought for people who have to learn English in later life.  How would they ever know which emphasis is correct?

There is a major difference between English and Spanish in this respect.  Whereas in English it is basically pot-luck which part of a word should be emphasised, in Spanish there are specific rules which are completely regular and never vary.  This means that if we learn a few simple principles we will always know how to give a word its correct emphasis and therefore make it comprehensible to others.  Unfortunately though, I have run out of space in this article and will have to give you the magic formula next week.

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